good governance, good governance and administration. This is what industrialized countries and international development organizations demand of developing countries in the context of conditioning development aid. In the context of good governance, the participation of society and the development of civil society structures are generally required (e.g. by the World Bank and the OECD). Since 1976, “governance” has been revived in American business jargon in the compound term “corporate governance” with the new normative meaning of responsible corporate management and has been received and disseminated not only in English, but worldwide, as well as in German business terminology. A decade later, in 1989, the World Bank in the United States introduced “governance” into the new composition of “good governance” with the new normative meaning of good governance in the technical language of international development policy, cooperation and aid, thus inventing one of the most widespread terms in today`s global language. Chronologically and in terms of content, it is clear that “good governance” arose from the spread of “corporate governance”. In 2007, the new fundamental right to “good administration” was codified in Article 41 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which entered into force on 1 December 2009. Since “good administration” is an integral part of “good governance”, the constitutional requirements for “good administration” are also binding legal definitions of “good governance”, including the requirement that matters relating to State bodies and agencies be dealt with “impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time” (art.
41, by. 1; Right to be heard, to have access to the file, to state reasons, official responsibility, paragraph 3; Official languages, paragraph (4). When guided by human rights values, good governance reforms of democratic institutions allow the public to participate in policy-making, either through formal institutions or through informal consultations. They also establish mechanisms for the inclusion of multiple social groups in decision-making processes, particularly at the local level. Finally, they can encourage civil society and local communities to formulate and express their positions on issues of importance to them. The term “governance” alone is generally descriptive of the facts, that is, neutral in terms of values. It refers to historical and contemporary, modified and constantly evolving control mechanisms in the fields of state, market and citizen solidarity. “Good” governance, on the other hand, is a normative ideal-prescriber of values, that is, an objective to be pursued in these areas.
In English, “governance” is an old term used in general political language to describe, evaluate and compare the way in which government is acted.  Linguistically, it has always been in competition with “government”, which can ambiguously mean “to govern” (in the sense of a justified verb, also: to govern) as well as “the government” (in the sense of the institution). “Governance” seems to be in the 20th century. In the nineteenth century, it was less and less used and considered obsolete. The Human Rights Council has identified the main characteristics of good governance: The term “right to good administration” also seems to be based on the development of the terms “enterprise” and “good governance” in terms of content and language. Given Kofi Annan`s well-known quote, the importance of the concept should probably not be overstated: “Good governance is perhaps the most important factor when it comes to eradicating poverty and promoting development.” (BMZ (2003): Law – Democracy – Peace, page 56). So what is behind the concept of “good governance”? The term seems infinitely flexible, multi-layered and perhaps even interpretable in favour of national interests. In this thesis, I would like to introduce the concept of good governance and make a substantive analysis concerning definitions, the history of ideas and dimensions.
Next, I would like to pay particular attention to the interpretation and application of German bilateral and multilateral development cooperation and present the 2015 action programme. Two selected examples of current German development cooperation will illustrate the application of the concept. Governance refers to all government processes, institutions, processes and practices by which matters of common interest are decided and regulated. Good governance adds a normative or evaluative attribute to the governance process. From a human rights perspective, it is primarily the process by which public institutions direct public affairs, manage public resources and ensure the realization of human rights. Although there is no internationally agreed definition of good governance, it can cover full respect for human rights, the rule of law, effective participation, multi-stakeholder partnerships, political pluralism, transparent and accountable processes and institutions, an efficient and effective public sector, legitimacy, access to knowledge, information and education, political empowerment of people, equal opportunities, sustainability, as well as attitudes and values that promote responsibility, solidarity and tolerance. In the fight against corruption, good government`s efforts rely on principles such as accountability, transparency and participation to shape anti-corruption policies. Initiatives may include the creation of institutions such as anti-corruption commissions, the creation of mechanisms for the exchange of information, and the monitoring of governments` use of public funds and the implementation of policies. In short, good governance refers to the political and institutional processes and outcomes needed to achieve development goals. The real test of “good” governance is the extent to which it delivers on the promise of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social.
The key question is: Do government institutions effectively guarantee the right to health, adequate housing, adequate food, quality education, fair justice and personal security? Good governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing. Human rights norms and principles provide a set of values that guide the work of Governments and other political and social actors. They also provide a set of performance standards for which these actors can be held accountable.