Subjective – Subjective information represents the views or interpretations of an individual or organization. Subjective information can be distorted or reflect educated and enlightened thinking. All opinions are subjective, but some are more factual than others. A fact is verifiable. We can determine if this is true by looking at the evidence. This may include numbers, dates, testimonials, etc. (example: “World War II ended in 1945.”) The truth is undeniable if we can assume that the measuring devices, recordings or memories are correct. Facts provide decisive support for the assertion of an argument. However, facts in themselves are worthless if we do not put them in context, if we do not draw conclusions and thus make sense of them.
Science literacy, also known as public understanding of science, is an educational objective that provides the public with the necessary tools to benefit from scientific advice. Although not hard facts, collective or professional opinions are defined as meeting a higher standard to support opinion. Sources whose authors only intend to persuade others will not satisfy your need for information for an answer to your research question or evidence to convince your audience. This is because they are not always limited to facts. Instead, they share their opinions with us without backing them up with evidence. If you used these sources, your readers will notice your argument and won`t believe it. Another type of claim that has no place in serious reasoning is prejudice, a wobbly opinion based on insufficient or unverified evidence. (Example: “Women are bad drivers.”) Contrary to belief, a bias is verifiable: it can be challenged and refuted on the basis of facts.
We often form prejudices or accept them from others – family, friends, media, etc. – without questioning their meaning or verifying their truth. Prejudices are, at best, frivolous simplifications. At worst, they reflect a narrow view of the world. More importantly, they are unlikely to gain the trust or approval of your readers. In occasional use, the term opinion can be the result of a person`s perspective, understanding, certain feelings, beliefs, and desires. An opinion is a judgment, point of view or statement that is not conclusive, not facts that are true statements. A related – but not identical – scientific consensus term is the dominant opinion on a scientific topic within the scientific community, such as scientific opinion on climate change. An opinion is a judgment based on facts, an honest attempt to draw a reasonable conclusion from factual evidence.
(For example, we know that millions of people go without proper medical care, and so you form the opinion that the country should introduce national health insurance, even if it would cost billions of dollars.) An opinion is potentially changing – depending on how the evidence is interpreted. Opinions alone have little power of persuasion. You should always let your reader know what your evidence is and how it led you to your opinion. “Scientific opinion” may reflect opinions on scientific concerns as expressed by one or more scientists and published in respected scientific journals or textbooks, both of which require peer review and rigorous professional review. It may also refer to opinions published by professional, academic or governmental organizations on scientific discoveries and their potential implications. Essentially, facts can be verified by evidence, and opinions are statements of belief, attitude, value, judgment, or feeling. A “judicial opinion” or “court opinion” is an opinion of a judge or group of judges that accompanies and explains an order or decision in a controversy before a court. A judicial opinion generally sets out the facts that the court has accepted as established, the legal principles by which the court is bound, and the application of the relevant principles to the recognized facts. The purpose is to set out the court`s reasoning for its decision.
 In some social sciences, particularly political science and psychology, group opinion refers to the aggregation of opinions gathered by a group of subjects such as members of a jury, legislature, committee or other collective decision-making body. In these situations, researchers are often interested in issues related to social choice, conformity, and group polarization. A particular opinion may relate to subjective issues for which there are no conclusive conclusions, or it may deal with facts that must be challenged by the logical error of entitlement to one`s opinion. Now that we know the differences between a fact and an opinion, it is important to know how to distinguish them when reading the literature. Let`s look at some useful strategies: opinions, unlike facts, are neither true nor false. An opinion can express a belief, attitude, value, judgment or feeling. Scientific opinions may be “partial, temporal, contradictory and uncertain”, so there may be no accepted consensus for a particular situation. In other circumstances, a particular scientific opinion may conflict with consensus.  In today`s language, public opinion is the set of individual attitudes or beliefs of a population (e.g., a city, state, or country), while consumer opinion is the similar aggregate collected in the context of market research (e.g., the opinions of users of a particular product or service).
Since the process of collecting everyone`s opinions is difficult, expensive or impossible to obtain, public opinion (or consumer opinion) is usually estimated from survey samples (for example, with a representative sample of a population). Do you need to refresh the differences between facts, objective information, subjective information and opinions? *In this quote, it is mainly the “should” that makes it subjective. The objective version of the last quote would read as follows: “Studies have shown that women who start taking calcium in their 30s show greater bone density and fewer effects of osteoporosis than women who have not taken calcium at all.” But perhaps there is other data that shows complications related to calcium intake. Therefore, the conclusion that a “should” requires makes the statement subjective. “Legal advice” or “final opinion” is a type of professional advice generally included in formal legal advice given by a lawyer to a client or third party. Most legal opinions are issued in the context of commercial transactions. The expert opinion expresses the lawyer`s professional judgment on the legal aspect of the transaction. The opinion can be “clean” or “reasoned”.  Legal advice does not guarantee that a court will reach a particular conclusion.  However, erroneous or incomplete legal advice may give rise to an action for professional misconduct against the lawyer, whereby the lawyer may be liable to pay damages to the plaintiff arising from reliance on the erroneous relationship. Unlike an opinion, a belief is a belief based on a cultural or personal belief, morality or values. Statements such as “the death penalty is legalized murder” are often called “opinions” because they express views but are not based on facts or other evidence.
They cannot be refuted or even challenged rationally or logically. Since beliefs are undeniable, they cannot serve as a formal argument thesis. (Emotional appeals can, of course, be helpful if you know your audience shares these beliefs.) Different people may draw opposite conclusions (opinions) even if they agree on the same facts. Opinions rarely change without new arguments being made. It can be argued that one opinion is better supported by the facts than another by analyzing the supporting arguments.  Note that the final statement – “World War II was a terrible war” – seems factual to many of us. However, it is an expression of opinion. Yes, most people would consider World War II terrible. However, there is always the possibility that someone has a different opinion, no matter how strange it may seem. It is very rare for a statement with a word of value like “terrible” to be factual. Each of these statements expresses an opinion.
Note that each is controversial. In other words, one may or may not agree (debate) on the expression of an opinion. Thinking about why an author created a source can be helpful because that reason determined the type of information they wanted to include. Depending on this purpose, the author may have chosen to include factual, analytical, and objective information.